26.05.2021
Switzerland: Referendums in an Incomparable Young Democracy

Switzerland is often hailed as a model of direct democracy. But these processes may prove difficult to replicate elsewhere for many reasons.

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26.05.2021
Referendums in Romania: A Route to Political Capital

Referendums in Romania have been instrumentalised by various political actors as strategies to increase legitimacy and popularity.

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26.05.2021
Referendums in Italy: Direct Democracy under Controlled Conditions

Designed to safeguard against a return of authoritarianism, the Italian constitutional framework leaves little space for direct democracy – yet referendums are not uncommon in the country.

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26.05.2021
Referendums in Ireland: Taking Care of the Constitution

Ireland’s model of amending the constitution through a national debate among the people provides an important route to progress

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26.05.2021
Referendums in Hungary: Confirmation Bias

The Hungarian government’s use of referendums shows how direct democracy can be used to lend a veneer of legitimacy to a party’s own policy agenda.

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26.05.2021
Indirect Democracy: Referendums in Europe

Rather than judging referendums as positive or negative, we should examine their distinctive political features and contexts.

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26.05.2021
After Modernity: Citizenship Beyond the Nation State?

If democracy stays cast in its national mould, the path ahead may be one of exclusion and disenfranchisement.

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26.05.2021
Never Far: Populism as the Shadow of Democracy

It is time to let go of the assumption that democracy always leads to progressive outcomes.

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26.05.2021
David Graeber: The Power of the Imagination

David Graeber’s insights on the imagination and the practice of democracy have inspired many not just to see the world differently, but to seek to change it.

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26.05.2021
Elinor Ostrom: The Case for a Messy Federalism

In studying real-world alternatives to state control and organisation via the market, Elinor Ostrom urges us to expand the notion of what democracy means.

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